Pauling Spheron Periodic Table

Linus Pauling was a brilliant physicist who tended to think outside the mainstream. One of his many contributions to science was his spheron model for the nucleus.

The word "spheron" does not mean the nucleus is spherical (although it may be), it refers to Pauling's idea that clusters might form in the nucleus. For example, a nucleus may contain a stable helium nucleus within a larger uranium nucleus. Thus, when uranium decays, it releases a helium atom. Other elements, such as oxygen, may also cluster within larger elements. This makes sense since certain atoms like helium and oxygen are more strongly bound than other elements.

Pauling Spheron Periodic Table


Pauling organized nuclei by their spins. Thus, the above table is organized primarily by the spins associated with each element. There are three main classes, which Pauling called the mantle, center, and inner core. Each class further divides into a dominant and inferior pair of subshells. The terms of "dominant" and "inferior" are terms I use to describe the subshell structures.

The most stable class of elements are those in the mantle on the dominant subshell (Ma series of elements). The Ma series has "magic number" elements at the filled end of each series. The most quoted magic numbers are 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, and 82. Other magic numbers are noted such as 6 and 14.

Organizing the nuclei by spins produces a table that seems to have nothing in common with the electron-based periodic tables. The same element color coding is used on the above periodic table as for the Vajra Periodic Table. The little symmetry that does exist for the Pauling Spheron Periodic Table suggests there is a spiral structure in the way the nucleus is formed. The Spheron table also suggests the nucleus forms and then new nucleons are added to the center of the formation, rather than piling up on the outside. The seeming lack of coherence in electron structure also reveals the nucleus forms by different rules than does the electron structure. For more information about the filling structure of the Pauling Spheron Periodic Table, click here and scroll to "Structure of Atomic Nuclei."

The lack of organization among metal types also suggests Pauling may be correct. As strong nuclear structures construct within the nucleus, they form spherons, or clusters within the nucleus. Thus any symmetry from systematically piling on and taking off nucleons is lost.

This suggests that when a nuclear binding energy equation is discovered, it will either be very complex with logic operators, or it will be simple but highly unique.